Clave Del Sol https://fundacionclavedelsol.org Ayúdanos A ayudar Sat, 26 Mar 2022 13:42:08 +0000 en-GB hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8.5 https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/cropped-unnamed-32x32.png Clave Del Sol https://fundacionclavedelsol.org 32 32 How did plants become carnivorous? https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/en/how-did-plants-become-carnivorous/ https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/en/how-did-plants-become-carnivorous/#respond Sat, 26 Mar 2022 13:42:08 +0000 https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/?p=2220 La entrada How did plants become carnivorous? se publicó primero en Clave Del Sol.

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The carnivorous plants of Asia, Australia and the Americas share a common trait despite the distance that separates them: the genetic machinery for digesting insects.  Carnivorous plants, which live in nutrient-poor habitats, capture insects by setting a trap from which they can hardly escape. Once trapped inside the leaves, the prey fall into digestive fluids that break down their flesh and exoskeletons to compensate for the plants’ nitrogen and phosphorus deficits. This is the method used by all carnivorous plants in Australia, Asia and America, despite having evolved independently.

A new study, published in Nature Ecology & Evolution, has delved into the origin of these plants and has identified the genetic changes that have allowed adaptation to a carnivorous diet in some plants. To do so, the team, led by the National Institute for Basic Biology of Japan and with the participation of the University of Barcelona (UB), examined three species: the Australian Cephalotus follicularis, the Asian Nepenthes alata and the American Sarracenia purpurea.

The experts sequenced the genome of the pitcher plant (Cephalotus follicularis), a species native to Australia that has well differentiated insectivorous leaves – pitcher-shaped traps for catching insects – from non-insectivorous leaves (like those of other plants).

The genome of this species – the second carnivorous plant with sequenced DNA after Utricularia gibba – is relatively large, consisting of 1.6 Gbp, which is almost half of the human genome. In total, the researchers identified more than 36,000 genes.

Genetic analyses show that, during their evolution towards a carnivorous diet, insect-trapping leaves have acquired new enzymatic functions. “This is a very specific set of proteins that have evolved to act as digestive enzymes,” says Pablo Librado, another of the authors who is currently working at the Center for Geogenetics at the University of Copenhagen.

Over time, in all three species, families of plant proteins that originally aided in self-defense against disease and other threats evolved into the digestive enzymes seen today, such as basic chitinase – capable of breaking down chitin, the main component of prey exoskeletons – and purple acid phosphatase – which allows plants to obtain phosphorus from decomposed bodies.

“This suggests that there are limited and restricted pathways that lead them to become carnivorous plants,” says Victor A. Albert, of the University at Buffalo (USA) and one of the authors of the paper. “These plants have a genetic toolkit, and they try to find an answer to become carnivorous, and in the end, they all arrive at the same solution,” he adds.

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XXI century: the reality of gas, coal and oil. https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/en/xxi-century-the-reality-of-gas-coal-and-oil/ https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/en/xxi-century-the-reality-of-gas-coal-and-oil/#respond Thu, 24 Mar 2022 21:42:35 +0000 https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/?p=2215 La entrada XXI century: the reality of gas, coal and oil. se publicó primero en Clave Del Sol.

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We are currently experiencing a momentous change in the way in which the energy industry should be part of our daily lives.Never has concern for the environment and the feared climate change that we are causing been so evident, nor has it materialized in the making and setting of commitments and objectives by governments.

Without going any further, at the Seoul summit a commitment was made to achieve a greener recovery, as well as to move towards the goal of carbon neutrality, and although these agreements tend to remain on paper with great ease, at least on this occasion the summit itself has led by example, since having been developed mainly remotely, the planet has been spared the enormous greenhouse gas emissions involved in transporting dozens of world leaders and their entourages included.

Sustainable Alternatives for Mobility.

In recent months we have almost all heard about green hydrogen, and the high investments being made to implement it as a clean alternative to the classic polluting energies. However, its use seems to have certain dark areas and some doubt that it is the remedy we have been led to believe, since, although it is true that burning H2 does not produce CO2, the reality shows that its production will take at least a decade to become competitive. This is time we cannot afford to waste given the current climate situation.

In addition, as reported by the non-governmental organizations Corporate Europe Observatory (CEO), Food & Water Action Europe and Re: Common, the gas lobby is pressuring Brussels to use public funds to finance all the R&D required to make green hydrogen production competitive.

The conclusion of the report is that green hydrogen is an alternative business for the gas lobby which, having lost in its fight against wind and photovoltaic renewables, would continue to make use of its infrastructure through it, and the authors of the report propose alternatives to what they consider to be the “hydrogen bubble”.

La entrada XXI century: the reality of gas, coal and oil. se publicó primero en Clave Del Sol.

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The oldest fossils on earth have been found. https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/en/the-oldest-fossils-on-earth-have-been-found/ https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/en/the-oldest-fossils-on-earth-have-been-found/#respond Wed, 23 Mar 2022 20:23:00 +0000 https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/?p=2193 La entrada The oldest fossils on earth have been found. se publicó primero en Clave Del Sol.

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Remains of 3.77-billion-year-old microorganisms, which were discovered in sedimentary rocks from ancient hydrothermal vents, became the first evidence of life on Earth.

Hydrothermal vents under the oceans have long been considered one of the earliest environments that harbored life on Earth because of their iron-rich content. It is in these places that scientists have focused to find the earliest forms of bacterial life on Earth.

“It makes sense that early organisms would be preserved in hydrothermal vents. These environments provide the energy and chemical gradients needed to initiate early metabolic processes,” Matthew S. Dodd, first author of the study published in Nature and a researcher at University College London (UK) and the London Centre for Nanotechnology, told Sinc.

The international team of scientists analyzed fragments of jasper, a sedimentary rock, found in the Nuvvuagituuq Belt in Quebec, Canada, and which possibly belonged to ancient hydrothermal vents. Previous studies had dated them to between 3,770 and 4,290 million years ago.

Using a combination of optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy (to study low-frequency modes), the researchers identified and located microfossils and their associated mineralogy. Because Raman microscopy uses a laser to measure vibrations in the bonds between different atoms, the team was able to decipher which minerals were present in the rocks.

“Other instruments such as energy dispersive electron microscopy were also used to analyze chemical compositions of minerals associated with organic matter and microfossils,” adds Dodd. In addition, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers were used to measure the abundance of trace elements in the jasper to verify the hydrothermal origin of these rocks.

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THE RISE OF INTEGRATED AND SELF-SUFFICIENT FARMS IN COLOMBIA AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS. https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/en/the-rise-of-integrated-and-self-sufficient-farms-in-colombia-and-their-characteristics/ https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/en/the-rise-of-integrated-and-self-sufficient-farms-in-colombia-and-their-characteristics/#respond Sat, 05 Feb 2022 20:01:00 +0000 https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/?p=2077 La entrada THE RISE OF INTEGRATED AND SELF-SUFFICIENT FARMS IN COLOMBIA AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS. se publicó primero en Clave Del Sol.

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Due to the quarantine decreed by the National Government to mitigate the contagion of Covid-19 in the country, and the phenomena of food hoarding that have been seen despite the efforts of the Ministry of Agriculture to ensure supply throughout the country, many people see in self-sufficient integral farms an increasingly interesting option.

While there is no consensus on what size a farm should be – it depends on the intensity and variety of crops – there is consensus on the elements that must make up a farm to fall into the category of self-sustaining integral. Ideally, these should have: an ecological house, an agricultural component, an animal component, a system for recycling biological material and the use of alternative energy sources, and everything should be related in a chain of biological utilization.

Although there is no record of how many farms of this type there are in the country, more and more people have started self-sustainable projects that, although they do not yet have all the elements, are on their way to becoming integral farms. “In some way, the peasant family economies of pancoger, especially those of coffee growers, are self-sufficient, since they usually have, in addition to coffee plantations, citrus, fruit trees, pigs and chickens”, says Jorge Enrique Bedoya, president of the SAC.

The components that the farms have developed the most are agriculture, almost always with organic vegetable gardens, and animals, still leaving room to grow in terms of waste recycling and renewable energies. “Most of the self-sufficient farms with organic crops work with conviction in this way, but the difficulty is in production at scale,” explains Luis Betancourt, president of Fedeorgánicos.

The biggest challenge facing farms today, in order to be truly integrated and self-sufficient, is the use of alternative and renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, to optimize water extraction processes, especially from the subsoil, not only for domestic use, but also for animal consumption and plant irrigation.

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Climate change: do you know what permafrost is or the consequences of its melting on the planet? https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/en/climate-change-do-you-know-what-permafrost-is-or-the-consequences-of-its-melting-on-the-planet/ https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/en/climate-change-do-you-know-what-permafrost-is-or-the-consequences-of-its-melting-on-the-planet/#respond Fri, 04 Feb 2022 14:04:00 +0000 https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/?p=2102 La entrada Climate change: do you know what permafrost is or the consequences of its melting on the planet? se publicó primero en Clave Del Sol.

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Permafrost is the layer of ground below the Earth’s surface that has been frozen continuously for at least two consecutive years  and, in most cases, for hundreds or thousands of years.

It extends over a quarter of the Northern Hemisphere, including many regions that are not covered by snow.

The Earth’s permafrost is thawing, and indigenous Arctic communities and scientists around the world are calling for this alarming loss of land ice receive the global attention and corresponding research it deserves.

This melting is reshaping landscapes, displacing entire villages and disrupting fragile animal habitats, and threatens to release dangerous microorganisms and possible emissions of the carbon that has been frozen inside for thousands of years.

An equally alarming tragedy is occurring on the other side of the globe: the Arctic, where rising temperatures are shrinking ancient glaciers, reducing sea ice and warming and thawing the planet’s permafrost.

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Possible cause of ‘mental fog’, one of the sequelae of covid-19 affecting memory and attention, discovered https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/en/possible-cause-of-mental-fog-one-of-the-sequelae-of-covid-19-affecting-memory-and-attention-discovered/ https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/en/possible-cause-of-mental-fog-one-of-the-sequelae-of-covid-19-affecting-memory-and-attention-discovered/#respond Thu, 03 Feb 2022 14:41:00 +0000 https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/?p=2110 La entrada Possible cause of ‘mental fog’, one of the sequelae of covid-19 affecting memory and attention, discovered se publicó primero en Clave Del Sol.

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The researchers identified participants with different cognitive symptoms as potential risk factors such as diabetes and high blood pressure, and a history of anxiety disorders.

A recent study reveals the possible cause behind ‘mental fog,’ a condition that affects people who have contracted coronavirus or have suffered from the disease for a prolonged period.

The work, published in the journal Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, was carried out by a group of researchers from the University of California at San Francisco (USA) and has shown that ‘brain fog’ is closely related to abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid—a colorless fluid that bathes the brain and spinal cord—like conditions found in people with other infectious diseases.

For the analysis, 32 adults who had contracted the disease were studied, 22 of them with symptoms of cognitive deficit and 10 control participants who had not presented this condition. The patients underwent cognitive interviews to determine their degree of neurological involvement, and cerebrospinal fluid was analyzed in 17 of them who consented to lumbar puncture.

The results revealed that 10 of 13 participants with cognitive symptoms had cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities. All four samples from participants without cognitive symptoms, however, were normal.

 

 

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What you should know about an electric bicycle https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/en/what-you-should-know-about-an-electric-bicycle/ https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/en/what-you-should-know-about-an-electric-bicycle/#respond Wed, 02 Feb 2022 15:16:00 +0000 https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/?p=2117 La entrada What you should know about an electric bicycle se publicó primero en Clave Del Sol.

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What is an electric bicycle?

Let’s start at the beginning. If just hearing the term “electric” makes an impression on you and generates respect, we are here to demolish unjustified myths and fears. An electric bicycle is a normal cycle to which an electric motor and battery have been added.

The motor is normally located at the rear wheel hub to power the bike, although it can also be at the front. It is an “electric pedal-assist bicycle”, whose motor is not intended to carry us without us doing anything (it is not a motorcycle), but to help us pedal with less effort. The motor is simple, with a power that varies between 180 and 250 watts.

 How does it work?

The motor of the electric bicycle is recharged by extracting the batteries and connecting them to the conventional electrical network, in a normal socket, like when we recharge our cell phones. The mechanism is simple and, thanks to these batteries, in the slopes or in the sections that are difficult for us for example by having the wind against us we can stop pedaling, or pedal more softly, and the motor do its job. Of course, when the bike stops the engine stops. In other words, as we said, it is not “motorcycle”. Normally, you can regulate the power of the motor on a screen and see if you need it to do more or less power. The lithium batteries provide a range of between 50 and 70 kilometers, although of course you can go as far as you can pedaling. For urban use, which is what they are designed for, that distance is more than reasonable.

What are its advantages?

An electric bicycle is interesting for several reasons:

  • The first and most obvious advantage is comfort. Knowing that you’re not going to arrive sweaty to work after climbing a hill is very attractive, just like daring to take a route on the weekend on a hill that intimidated you because that slope will be a piece of cake with your new cycle. And that, surely, will encourage you to become a cyclist.
  • The second advantage is your batteries. You don’t have to be afraid of them. They are easy to remove and lightweight, which means you can park your two-wheeler without worrying about it being taken away.
  • The battery charges relatively quickly, between one and five hours. Every night, you can bring it home and recharge it.
  • Like all bicycles, it is a fast, silent, non-polluting, environmentally friendly and healthy means of transportation.
  • There is an initial outlay for its purchase, but then its consumption is much lower than that of any other vehicle with a combustion engine. Charging the battery of an electric bicycle costs less than $1, much less than filling up the tank of a car. And according to a study by the Yamimoto brand, the average maintenance cost of an electric bicycle that rides 300 kilometers is $36 per month. Compared to a car, it’s a lot cheaper.
  • You don’t need any kind of registration or insurance.
  • If you are careful, it is a safe medium. Especially at traffic lights or road junctions, it manages to get up to a safe speed in a very short time, thanks to its acceleration.
  • It can reach speeds of 25 to 40 kilometers per hour, or more, depending on the model and manufacturer. And of course, if you pedal you will get as far as your legs want and can.
  • It is the most affordable electric vehicle we will find, and a good starting point to get started in electric mobility. The motor has about 10 years of life and the batteries, between one and two.Unlike what happens with other motor vehicles, with electric bicycles you will be able to ride on bicycle paths.

What are the disadvantages?

Other factors to consider:

  • The first and most weighty one that may put off many from opting for this type of cycle is the price. Of course, there is a lot of variety, and there are cheaper and more expensive electric bicycles, but a low-end model cost around $600 and there are some high-end models that cost more than $3500. At this point, conventional bicycles have many more followers, as is logical.
  • Repairs are less straightforward than with a conventional cycle, as you may need a specific part from the electrical part manufacturer. That is, you may not be able to repair it yourself or take it to the garage around the corner, although repairs to the conventional part of the vehicle can be done in a normal workshop.
  • As mentioned in the advantages, the average maintenance cost of an electric bicycle that rides 300 kilometers is $36 per month. Compared to a car, it is much more economical. But compared to a conventional bicycle it is more, since a normal cycle does not give us any cost. It is the cheapest vehicle that exists.
  • You have to be careful with rain and electrical parts. If you go on the road and it rains, you will have to dry it when you arrive. And of course, in some areas of Colombia it rains a lot.

 

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Electric cars for sale in Colombia in 2020: Prices and features. https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/en/electric-cars-for-sale-in-colombia-in-2020-prices-and-features/ https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/en/electric-cars-for-sale-in-colombia-in-2020-prices-and-features/#respond Tue, 01 Feb 2022 18:58:00 +0000 https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/?p=2121 La entrada Electric cars for sale in Colombia in 2020: Prices and features. se publicó primero en Clave Del Sol.

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After having one of the fastest growing segments in the local market, electric cars slowed down their dynamics this year due to the Covid-19 crisis. They have sold 695 up to October, a reduction of 2.1% compared to the previous year.

2020 has been a complex year for electric cart sales, due to the economic effects of the Covid-19 pandemic.  Although their year-on-year decline of 2.1% does not sound so dramatic, they did lag behind hybrids and plug-in hybrids that show high growth rates of 19.4% and 6.65% respectively.

According to figures from Andemos, 695 “zero emissions” cars have been registered in the last 10 months. The accumulated of 2019, as of the same month, registered 710 units. Last October closed with 67 registrations of these vehicles, a slight growth of 1.52% compared to 66 units in the same month last year.

In terms of electric vehicles, demand for trucks under 10.5 tons (92 units, +318.2%), pick-ups (5 units, +100%), SUVs (83 units, +48.2%) and vans (13 units, +8.3%) grew. In contrast, passenger commercial vehicles (17, -37.04%), passenger cars (480, -12.23%) and cabs (5, -16.7%) decreased.

 

La entrada Electric cars for sale in Colombia in 2020: Prices and features. se publicó primero en Clave Del Sol.

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What is music therapy and how does it work? https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/en/what-is-music-therapy-and-how-does-it-work/ https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/en/what-is-music-therapy-and-how-does-it-work/#respond Mon, 31 Jan 2022 20:04:00 +0000 https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/?p=2127 La entrada What is music therapy and how does it work? se publicó primero en Clave Del Sol.

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What is music therapy and how does it work?

Throughout our history, the influence of music on people has always been present. It is known that, in prehistoric times, music was already part of magical, religious and healing rites, although its first written record, found in the ancient Egyptian city of Kahum, dates back to 1500 BC. The ancient Egyptians already gave music the power to heal the body, calm the mind and purify the soul. A long journey through the eons to our days, in which we have already rationalized it and we know that music affects our body and mind, activating certain brain areas related to mood and state of mind. The ancient Egyptians already gave music the power to heal the body, calm the mind and purify the soul. A long journey through the eons until our days, in which we have already rationalized it and we know that music affects our body and mind, activating certain brain areas related to mood and state of mind.

What is music therapy?

It has been proven that music is a sensory experience that can activate all our brain areas simultaneously. For this reason, its use in therapy is especially useful, as it triggers the functioning of the brain in three aspects: emotional, cognitive and physical.

There are many definitions of music therapy, but perhaps the one that best defines its general character and essence is the one given by the International Music Therapy Association:

“Music therapy is the use of music and/or its elements (sound, rhythm, melody, and harmony) by a qualified music therapist, with a patient or group, in a process aimed at facilitating and promoting communication, learning, mobilization, expression, organization, or other relevant therapeutic goals, in order to assist physical, psychic, social, and cognitive needs.

 

How is music therapy applied?

The first thing to keep in mind is that a music therapist is not a music teacher. He is not just a person with extensive musical training. In fact, it goes beyond that. Music therapy is not simply music education, since music itself is not the end, it is the means, to obtain changes in a person.

To this end, music therapy can be performed in 4 different ways, depending on the musical experience that is needed:

  • Improvisation: The patient creates his/her own music by singing or playing the instrument provided.
  • Recreation: A song is sung or an already composed piece of music is played. From memory or by reading the score.
  • Composition: A song or a piece of music is composed according to known musical structures.
  • Listening: Listening to recorded or live music.

Likewise, it is important to choose the right music according to the objectives of the therapy. For this, it is necessary to consider the different parts that make up a piece of music:

  • Time: Slow times convey calm and security, while fast times are more exciting.
  • The rhythm: They can be slow and fast, the latter producing a greater motor activity.
  • Harmony: It is produced when several sounds are played at the same time and chosen conscientiously, according to the effect that you want to produce.
  • The tonality: The major modes are usually cheerful, lively, and funny, provoking the extraversion of people. The minor modes, present different connotations in their expression and influence, favoring the introversion of the individual.
  • The height: the high notes act, frequently, on the can wake us up or take us out of a state of tiredness. The low sounds, on the other hand, usually produce somber effects, a pessimistic vision, or an extreme tranquility.
  • Intensity: A very important aspect to control since it must be adequate for each person.

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What is a biodigester? https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/en/what-is-a-biodigester/ https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/en/what-is-a-biodigester/#respond Mon, 31 Jan 2022 19:13:00 +0000 https://fundacionclavedelsol.org/?p=2124 La entrada What is a biodigester? se publicó primero en Clave Del Sol.

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A biodigester is a hermetically sealed container that contains organic waste of plant or animal origin (rotting meat, excrement, etc.).

A group of microorganisms present in the organic waste produce a reaction known as anaerobic fermentation, from which energy can be obtained. Biodigesters are an economical and effective alternative in rural communities around the world.

Biodigesters are an economical and effective alternative in rural communities around the world. They make it possible to meet   the energy demands of these populations and provide a suitable means of handling human and animal waste. In short, they are an effective alternative to address global warming.

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